Slice of sind

Map of Sindh

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History of Sind

General introduction :


Indus valley civilization and Sind in particular was the cradle of world civilizations .. The name Sind is derived from river Sindhu which is called Indus .Our ancient civilisation began here .

It is a confirmed fact that Navigation started on the Indus river around 6OOO years ago .

We must feel proud of the fact that we originate from such an ancient and cultured country with a recognized civilisation of 5OOO years.

There was a Sindhi version of the Mahabharata in 3OO B.C during the Budhhist era of Sind.

Vasdeva the Kusha king at that time ordered the listing of all sindhi literary works in 346 A.D . But today there is no trace of these writings But the definite assertion of the existence about these books proves that two thousand years ago , sindhi was already a written language.

4 .. Short History of Sind

Indus basin is known to be a cradle foor ancient civilisation .It was in contact with Mesomapotia and Egypt . We make a start with our oldest known site : Mehrgarh:


Very few of us know about Mehrgarh near Bolan Pass Quetta - Balochistan.

Mehrgarh is probably the oldest site with distinct proofs that it existed in 7OOO B.C and lived on farming of barley ,maize,wheat and dates. They also raised cattle.

There were mud brick houses. Figurines of females were found at the site..

Jewellery of semi precious stones has also been found at Mehrgarh .

Ceramics were also found there. They were masters in this art.

Vessels were also found Scientists while studying the ramains of two men were shocked to see that their teeth had been attended to by an ancient dentist Evidently they had advanced a lot in their quest for knowledge.

b. Lakhyan jo daro near Sukkur; 5OOO year old settlement. It predates Moen jo Daro.Utensils,pots and mirros were found,even wooden and metal objects,which proved that it was very advanced .

Lakhyan jo daro Terricota

c. Ruins of Amri fort were 36OO to 33OO B.C It predates Moen jo Daro.Well over 1OO settlements have been found. Pottery was also found.

d. In Kota diji ancient fort a drome flute has been unearthed . The ruins of this fort were around 3OOO B.C Cotton was probably grown and exported which proves that the inhabitants were very advanced .

e. The fort of Rani kot is supposed to be one of the largest forts in the world. It is made of sandstone. Inside the fort, you have ponds, pools and a spring . Each place inside is unique.


Along with Moen jo Daro, Mesomatia and Egypt civilisations were flourishing '

Ruins of Moen jo daro : 25 kms. Away from Larkana city in Sind ..It was inhabited in 2OOO B.C , abandoned in 17OO B.C and rediscovered in 192O ‘ Around 5OOOO people stayed there at one time. Maybe more.

It was probably abandoned due to the floods as river Indus changes its course very often Declared as Unesco world heritage site ., Unesco 1n 1997 gave U.S $1O million for restoration and strengthening the base of the city .

The above 5 artistic seals prove the extent of progress achieved in 2OOO B.C itself .

The dancing girl denotes self confidence.

Wayang Kulit of Indonesia bears a lot of similarity to it .

Scholars must do research on this similarity .

The statue of the priest or king shows power and dignity .It is draped in a cloth which is presumed to be Ajrak.It is a two sided resist printing on cotton fabric .

Ajrak is a very highly dyeing and printing achievement of Sind on cotton fabric It is practically used on all occasions from birth to death.

Dr. Ela.Manoj.Dedhia has done excellent research on Ajrak .She has even written a book on the subject.

She organizes exhibitions on Ajrak cloth .Those who are genuinely interested,can write to her at [email protected]

Quite a few statues of goddesses were also found at the site .

Moen jo daro had an excellent drainage system,planned wide roads, two storied houses - made of baked mud. There were also huge granaries for storage. The public bath of Moen jo Daro is unique.

According to latest reports on google all the ancient sites are eroding due to goverment neglect and public aphathy.

It is very heartening to know that Tata's Fundemental Institute of Research which is highly respected all over the world , is undertaking a research on Moen jo Daro to find out if the city was laid as per astronomical placements of stars at that time like is the case with Borobudur, the largest Budhhist Complex in the world In Indonesia and Angkor Vat in Cambodia According to Makarand Khatavkar who also conducted a lot of research on Moen Jo daro,the layout of the ancient Moen Jo Daro is astonishing and so are the seals Some streets in Moen Jo Daro were 33 feel broad, and had markets on both sides .At Moen jo Daro , there is a 5OOO year old well and the workers were drinking water from it .

Another very striking point was that no weapons of war were found at Moen Jo Daro. We must also mention other very important sites

g. Budhhist Stupa at Mirpur Khas : Kahan jo Daro ;

In 4OO B.C this was a flouring budhhist area, Near the site, coins, quartz and lapiz lazuli articles were found.

Near the site was also a budhhist stupa lying in ruins The workers in this area were freely digging in this historical area without any hesitation.

h. Shiva's Temple at Debal
Debal was a very important port in Sind and was the capital of the Indus area.

The remains of the temple were torn down during the caliphate period and the material used for building new structures .

In the pre islamic perion,a shiva's temple was unearthed and two shiva lingams and silver coins were found .


i. Historical Look at Hingol : Hinglaj Devi was last mother queen of Matriarchal era of Indus Valley Another name of Hinglaj Devi is Goddess Naina which is very akin to Goddess Nania of Sumerian Civilization by Jagdeesh Ahuja, Hyderabad, Sindh.

The wirter can be reached at [email protected] Originally Hinglaj has nothing to do with religion or nationalism. Hinglaj is the historical monument of Sindhu Civilization. Hingol was one of the great many kingdoms of Sapta Sindhva (Sindhu des of seven rivers) and Hinglaj Devi was last mother queen of matriarchal era of Indus Valley. Another name of Hinglaj Devi is Goddess Naina which is very akin to Goddess Nania of Sumerian Civilization. The great poet of Indus Valley, Shah Latif called her “Nani Ama(n)” and after then Hinglaj Temple became famous as Temple of Nani Ama(n) especially in the Muslim populace. And Hinglaj Yatra has now got a great new altitude beyond religious divide.

We are unfortunate people who disown our own history. Ironically people of India own our monuments of ancient civilization as their sacred religious shrines and we are ever ready to give up our past and destroy our future. What a great alienation and ignorance of our own history! How can one weigh the advantages of destruction of Harappa, Taxila or Mohen-jo-daro!? Hinglaj is even more ancient than these historical sites. Mehargarh and Hinglaj are the monuments of advent of civilization.

Legend of Shiva Parpati explains the transition of matriarchal era to patriarchal era. Shiva is the first male god of Sindhu Civilization whose whole Shakti (Power) was enshrined in his spouse Parpati (Hinglaj Devi) that is why she is also called Shakti Devi. It is well known fact that Shiva was the Lord of Indigenous Dravidian people of Indus Valley. When they were forced to migrate to Ganges Valley by Central Asian Aryan invaders, they continued to worship their Lord Shiva there. Long after the Aryans settled in Sapta Sindhva and owned Shiva along with their Lord Indra (God of Storm), people of Ganges valley started to visit the land of their ancestors. Hence the tradition of Hinglaj Yatra took place.

We must not forget the fact that the word Hindu itself is nothing but Sindhu. The Persians pronounced Sindhu as Hindu. And later Greek invaders pronounced Hindu as Indu, thence words Indus and India came into existence. Due to our ignorance we have lost sense of our history. Religious and nationalistic narrow mindedness has blurred our vision. Hinglaj doesn’t belong to any single religion or nation only, it is a great asset of Indus Valley and heritage of whole humankind, which should be put in the World Heritage list of UNESCO.

Jagdeesh Ahuja
507, Burhani Centre,
Opp: Faran Hotel, Sadar,
Hyderabad, Sindh.

j. In 8OO B.C Egyptians attacked Sind

k. Next the Persians ruled over Sind during the reign of King Darius.

l. In 325 B.C Alexandar the great attacked Sind.

m. Budhhist Era for 3 centuries.

n. In 55O A.D a local Hindu kingdom was founded by Raja Chach .He was succeeded by the most famous king of Sindh- Raja Daher

o. In 711 A.D Mohammed bin Kasim attacked Sindh and conquered it .Raja Daher dies fighting and many Sindhis consider him as a martyr

p. This was followed by Muslim kingdoms for the next 11 centuries .


Same applies to the magnificient architecture at Makli near Thata which is the largest graveyard in the world and has nearly 5OOOO graves. Both these sites are protected areas. Yet they are decaying

Makli is probably the largest graveyards in the world having graves of nearly 125,OOO sufi saints . It is on the outskirs of Thatha .

It has a majestic architecture which is a blend of Hindu ,Islamic and central asian motifs .

It is a Unesco site and is visited by tourists in large numbers . According to latest reports on google all the ancient sites are eroding due to goverment neglect and public apathy.


Beautiful Motifs at Chawkandi tombs on the outskkirts of Karachi belonging to the 16-17th Century and built by a Baluchi tribe are also slowly decaying.

Chawkandi Graveyard

Some 30 km from City Centre on National Highway is Chawkandi Graveyard. It is about seven hundrad year old Muslim graveyard. These graves are rectangular shape made of Red Stone with a very find art work on them.

A male's tomb has crown on top & all male's crowns are different from each other. (See Picture)

s. Sadhu Bela Temple, Sindh

Chawkandi Graveyard

Some 30 km from City Centre on National Highway is Chawkandi Graveyard. It is about seven hundrad year old Muslim graveyard. These graves are rectangular shape made of Red Stone with a very find art work on them.

A male's tomb has crown on top & all male's crowns are different from each other. (See Picture)

s. Sadhu Bela Temple, Sindh

Sadhu Bela is a temple on an island right in the midst of the Indus river in Sukkar .The view of the hills nearby is fantastic Sadhu Bela means :A saint in a jungle.It was established in 1823 by a mystic Baba bankhandi. It is spread over 9 acres Community feast :Langar:Free food for all: is a regular feature along with other daily religious ceremonies Every year on the Urs of the Baba,thousands converge on this holy place to pay respects to him.

Very recently, Sadhu Bela was affected by floods. But like Moen Jo Daro, there is a total apathy of the government as well as local people.

t. British rule 1843 to 1947 : Sir Charles Napier was the person who annexed Sind.

u .1947 Formation of Pakistan and the exodus of Sindhi Hindus to India and various parts of the world . The Sindhis migrated to Ajmer,Ahmedabad,Bhopal, Nagpur, Jalgaon and Ulhasnagar –Kalyan and other places in India.

Quite a few went to countries outside India. Today’s statics :In Pakistan , there are 7O% Sindhis,17% in India and 13% overseas.

Simultaneuosly Maharao Shri of Kutch very gracefully allotted 15OOO acres to the Sindhis for resettlement What a noble gesture ! The entire project was handed over to Bhai Pratap to develop a self sufficient city with roads,and infrastructure, etc. rtc.

This city was planned by a world reknown Italian architect. In due course housing projects, educational institutes and hospitals etc were built.

The city is still growing

Meantime,the Sindhis have spread to all parts of the world .They are all prospering and very happy.Only saddest thing is: The use of Sindhi language is declining and may be extinct during the next century.

However on this front,we have some good news.Sindhi language can now be written in standardised phonetic roman script .It was approved by a group of scholars at Ahmedabad on 29,3,2O1O.

See and section 18 .There are 2O files on sind and the sindhis

Unfortunately, there is no central organisation connecting all of us through a world website
There are over 2OO sindhi websites with each organisation having maybe 2OO e mail addresses each
Compare this with 4,OOO,OOO sindhis outside Sind and India.We must have at least 1OO,OOO e mail addresses.Some very powerful organisation should link the Sindhis of the world.They must be experts in mass mailing and should be able to send 1OO,OOO e mails a day. Could we be so lucky ?